Poultry Summary and References

To ensure the health and productivity of their flocks, poultry producers should continue to employ the “best management” practices recommended by equipment manufacturers, breeders, trade organizations, and scientists. Current societal concerns about the welfare of animals in confinement, however, also require us to consider the behavioral need of animals. More research is required to determine if husbandry practices need to be modified to improve well-being, as well as to assess how this can be accomplished in a manner that is economically viable for producers and consumers.

Poultry Best Practices


1. Mench, J.A. 1992. The welfare of poultry in modern production systems. Poultry Science Rev. 4:107-128.

2. Wlds. Poult. Sci. J. 1990, pp. 19-47 (various articles).

3. Appleby, M.C., B.O. Hughes, and H.A. Elson. 1992. Poultry Production Systems: Behaviour, Management and Welfare. Wallingford, Oxon, U.K.: CAB International.

4. Appleby, M.C. and Hughes, B.O. 1995. The Edinburgh Modified Cage for laying hens. Br. Poult. Sci. 36:707-718.

5. Carnell, P. 1981. An economic appraisal of less intensive systems. In Alternatives to Intensive Husbandry Systems (see ref. 3), pp. 21-31.

6. Cages for laying hens. 1991. Rep. Scottish Agricultural College, Auchincruive.

7. Cunningham, D.L. and Mauldin, J.M. 1996. Cage housing, beak trimming, and induced molting of layers: a review of welfare and production issues. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 5:63-69.

8. Gentle, M.J. 1986. Beak trimming in poultry. Wlds Poult. Sci. J. 42:268-275.

9. Craig, J.V. and Lee, H-Y. 1990. Beak trimming and genetic stock effects on behavior and mortality from cannibalism in White-Leghorn-type pullets. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 25:107-123.

10. Gentle, M.J. and Hunter, L.H. 1988. Neural consequences of partial toe amputation in chickens. Res. Vet. Sci. 45:374-376.

11. Wolford, J.H. 1984. Induced moulting in laying fowls. Wlds Poult. Sci. J. 4:66-74.

12. Adams, A.W. and J.V. Craig. 1975. Effect of crowding and cage shape on productivity and profitability of caged layers. Poultry Sci. 64:238-242

13. Feedstuffs. August 20, 1990, p.12.

14. Mench, J.A. 1988. The development of aggressive behavior in male broiler chicks: a comparison with laying-type males and the effects of feed restriction. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 21:233-242.

15. Knowles, T.G. and D.M. Broom. 1990. The handling and transport of broilers and spent hens. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 28:75-91.

16. Nicol, C.J. and C. Saville-Weeks. 1993. Poultry handling and transport. In: Livestock Handling and Transport, ed. T. Grandin. Wallingford, Oxon, U.K.: CAB International, pp. 273-287.

17. Duncan, I.J.H., G.S. Slee, P. Kettlewell, P. Berry, and A.J. Carlisle. 1986. Comparison of the stressfulness of harvesting broiler chickens by machine and by hand. Br. Poult. Sci. 27:109-114.

18. Craig, W.L. 1990. Protecting baby chicks and hatching eggs during export shipment. USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service Transportation Tips.

19. Farm Animal Welfare Council. Report of the welfare of poultry at the time of slaughter. 1982. FAWC: Surrey, England.

20. Mohan Raj, A.B., T.C. Grey, A.R. Audsley, and N.G. Gregory. 1990. Effect of electrical and gaseous stunning on the carcase and meat quality of broilers. Br. Poult. Sci. 31:725-735.

21. Bilgili, S.F. 1992. Electrical stunning of broilers — basic concepts and carcass quality implications: a review. Appl. Poult. Res.1:135-146.

22. Webster, A.B. and Fletcher, D.L. 1996. Humane on-farm killing of spent hens. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 5:191-200.

23. Newberry, R.C., Webster, A.B., Lewis, N.J., and Arnam, C.V. 1996. Management of spent hens. Proc. Symp. Farm Animal Welfare in Canada. Lennoxville, Quebec, Canada.

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